Deep varicose veins of the lower extremities: signs, symptoms, treatment

Varicose veins - many people are susceptible to this disease; during life, everyone is at risk of contracting this disease for several reasons. The pathological process is most often located in the legs, affecting the superficial veins, subject to progression, which can cause serious damage to health.

However, in addition to the vessels located close to the surface, varicose veins can also affect those that are located deeply, often being larger. This type of pathology is capable of causing many more problems, causing more serious violations. To resist the disease, it is important to understand the mechanism of its development, the causes of its occurrence, the symptoms and also to know the principles of the treatment.

What are deep varicose veins in the legs

causes of the development of varicose veins in the lower extremities

If we speak of varicose veins in principle, this term in medicine refers to a disease of the veins, in which the functions of blood transport through these vessels are impaired due to their deformation of varying severity. In other words, the veins stretch, expand, their walls become thinner, the work of the valves located inside is interrupted, and so on. All of this leads to the fact that the blood moves worse upwards, going to the heart, and its stagnation occurs in the vessels.

Most people imagine varicose veins in the lower extremities as protrusion of individual vessels and vascular network close to the surface of the skin. At the same time, swollen and deformed veins are clearly visible to the naked eye and this idea is correct, if we speak purely of aesthetic manifestations.

As for deep varicose veins, or more precisely, varicose veins, we are talking about similar disorders, but now they affect the venous vessels located in the thickness of the muscular tissue. This means that, even in the most severe stage of the pathological process, these veins do not appear on the surface.

This pathological process is dangerous not only because of its secrecy. The deep veins, including small and large tibia, calf, soleus and others, are much larger. As a result, they let in more blood, play a more significant role in systemic circulation and their defeat has a stronger effect on human health.

This means that with varicose veins in the deep veins, stagnant blood processes are much more serious. In that case, the person may experience severe pain, increased fatigue in the legs, and so on. However, even more dangerous consequences are that, with an excessive increase in pressure in the veins, their thin walls do not resist, which threatens to rupture and bleed internally. In the case of deep veins, bleeding, depending on its severity and location, proves to be much more serious and dangerous than in the varicose veins of the superficial vessels.

Causes of the disease

Understanding why varicose veins develop in deep veins allows the patient, if not to prevent the development of the disease, at least to fight it more successfully and to prevent the progress of the pathology.

In general, it is worthwhile to list not only the causes of varicose veins, but also the factors that contribute to this:

  • The main reason is the constant excessive tension of the legs due to standing for a long time. This is partly why varicose veins are considered an occupational disease that often develops in cooks, hairdressers and others who, due to their professional employment, spend most of their time standing up and even in a static position.
  • Genetics - most doctors reasonably believe that the predisposition for the development of varicose veins is hereditary. In this case, a predisposition to venous valve insufficiency is implicit.
  • Due to the fact that constant excessive loads on the legs are a predisposing factor for the development of varicose veins, this pathological process probably develops in obese people. In addition, the more overweight, the greater the likelihood of developing the disease.
  • Passive and sedentary lifestyle - the lack of regular stress on muscle structures also negatively affects the functioning of the vascular system. The likelihood of varicose veins is even greater if the person not only does not play sports and does not move around a lot, but also sits most of the time.
  • Pregnancy - in busy women, the development of varicose veins is due to several factors. It is an increase in the load on the legs due to the growth of the fetus, a change in blood chemistry, but the main reason is the restructuring of the hormonal background, that is, an increase in the production of progesterone. Likewise, varicose veins can cause long-term use of hormonal drugs.
  • Thrombosis is a disease in which the number of platelets in the blood increases, due to which the blood coagulation coefficient increases. This factor leads to a slowdown in blood circulation, as well as damage to blood vessels.

This is the list of the most likely causes and factors that cause the development of varicose veins in the deep vessels of the lower extremities. However, endocrine disorders, physical damage and so on can also be added here.

Symptoms

As mentioned earlier, the main disadvantage of deep varicose veins is that their development goes unnoticed in the early stages, until there are no visual signs of the disease. Despite this, even the initial forms of the pathological process have some symptoms, which are important to note:

  1. The patient feels an increased tiredness and a feeling of heaviness in the legs, which are felt mainly in the afternoon or late afternoon. It is characteristic that after a rest or a night's sleep, these signs dissipate and do not disturb until the following night, subject to stresses on the legs during the day;
  2. Swelling of the legs, even the smallest ones, is another warning sign. If the legs swell at night or in the morning for no apparent reason, for example, in the absence of kidney disease, this can indicate varicose veins.

When these symptoms are found, it is very important to see a doctor for diagnosis. However, the initial stages of varicose veins can proceed completely imperceptibly, in this case, the clinical signs already appear with the development of stages 2-3 of the disease, which may be the following:

  1. In addition to fatigue and weight, which are aggravated at night, patients complain of severe leg pain. The pain syndrome also tends to intensify at night, but in the final stages of the disease it can be constantly present.
  2. Swelling increase, legs can also swell permanently, although the swelling intensity is high, it is impossible not to notice.
  3. The defeat and deformation of the deep veins in the final stages of the progression of the pathology are reflected in the superficial vessels, due to which the venous networks appear in the legs and vascular "stars" appear. There is also a protrusion of the veins in the legs during intense exertion.
  4. In addition, the skin of the lower extremities takes on a bluish tint, especially in places where deep vessels are most affected.
  5. One of the signs of progression of varicose veins is cramps in the calf muscles, which are very uncomfortable for the patient, especially during night sleep.

Diagnosis

diagnostic options for varicose veins in the lower extremities

For differential diagnoses and accurate diagnoses, as well as for correct subsequent treatment, you need to consult a phlebologist.

The specialist will prescribe a series of diagnostic measures, but, in general, the disease is detected as follows:

  1. Initial examination with collection of anamnesis and patient complaints.
  2. Ultrasound of the leg vessels.
  3. Doppler ultrasound to detect blood clots.
  4. Urine and blood chemistry tests may also be required.

Treatment methods

Treatment of deep varicose veins in the lower extremities also requires the participation and supervision of a phlebologist.

In addition, to achieve maximum therapeutic effect, treatment must be complex, consisting of:

  1. Medical therapy.
  2. Folk remedies.
  3. Wearing compression garments.
  4. Surgical intervention.
  5. Physiotherapy exercises.
  6. Lifestyle adjustments.

To understand the general principles and tactics of treatment, we will consider three main methods of therapy, traditional and alternative medicine, as well as surgical treatment.

Medicines

Depending on the degree of disease progression and the patient's complaints, drug therapy includes the use of several groups of drugs:

  • Analgesics, among which are mainly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants.
  • The basis of treatment is venotonic drugs that fight venous insufficiency.
  • Anticoagulants that reduce blood clotting.
  • Phlebotonics that strengthen blood vessel walls and increase lymph flow.

Folk remedies

In folk medicine, the varicose veins of the lower extremities are usually treated with special compresses and friction based on natural ingredients.

methods of treating varicose veins in the lower extremities

Although not so effective in affecting deep vessels, they still have a certain therapeutic effect, which is enhanced when combined with traditional medicine.

The following tools are especially good at this:

  • Propolis alcohol tincture.
  • Horse chestnut tincture.
  • Compresses of fresh cabbage.
  • Essential oil baths.

Surgery

Despite all of the above, surgical intervention is still the most effective method for dealing with any form of varicose vein, as long as the disease progresses.

In this sense, several types of operations can also be distinguished:

  • Phlebectomy- excision of the affected area of ​​the vessel.
  • Sclerotherapyis ​​a new method that involves injecting a special substance into a vein that glues the vessel, after which it is gradually replaced by connective tissue.
  • Laser intravascular coagulation- thermal effect of the affected area of ​​the vein, which destroys the vascular wall and at the same time prevents blood reflux.