Varicose veins in the small pelvis are a modern-day disease.
Previously, when people led a more active lifestyle, these diseases were rare. Physical inactivity, working in an office in front of the computer, moving around in the means of transport - all these have led humanity to need to solve new health problems.
Small pelvic varices are diseases associated with decreased elasticity of the venous wall. There are different names for this disease: varicocele (found in both men and women), small pelvic varicose veins, chronic pelvic pain syndrome.
It mainly affects women who have reached reproductive (fertile) age.
The cause of this disease is often caused by the compression of the dilated uterus, the backflow of blood through the vessels of the small pelvis. This phenomenon often occurs during a period of changes in hormone levels and during the course of pregnancy.
Sometimes this type of varicose vein can start at puberty, because then hormonal changes also occur in the body, but unlike the course of the disease at a more mature age, it occurs in the absence of symptoms, the only one of which may be an increase in blood pressure. amount of secretion from Organs genitals.
Often with this disease, there is pain in the lower abdomen when standing upright, discomfort also occurs during physical activity and sexual intercourse. Not infrequently, varicose veins in the small pelvis also cover the perineum, vulva, and gluteal region.
Causes of disease and risk groups
Among the causes of pelvic varicose veins, the most common are changes in the proportion of hormones in the body and pregnancy. So far, this disease can lead to:
- hormonal treatment;
- the use of hormonal contraceptives;
- very frequent interruption of sexual intercourse as a contraceptive method;
- sexual dysfunctions - anorgasmia (lack of orgasm) and dyspuria (pain).
- heavy and numerous births;
- sedentary work, sedentary (or vice versa - excessive physical activity);
- congenital connective tissue pathologies (weakness of blood vessel walls and venous valves).
The issue of pelvic varices during pregnancy should be discussed in more detail.
The percentage of its manifestation during this period is far from low - varicose veins of the small pelvis are found in 30 percent of pregnant women. Pregnancy will often happen with a phenomenon that triggers the pathology and there are two reasons for that.
The first is a sharp rise in the level of female hormones. The second reason is the compression of the venous walls by the uterus, which increases rapidly during pregnancy, which, in turn, leads to the formation of collateral blood outlets with the participation of the gonadal venous system in this process.
After delivery, the pelvic veins undergo a reverse involution process and the venous walls need to be restored.
Patients with a predisposition to inflammatory processes in the pelvic organs and those with gynecological diseases (endometriosis, cysts, tumoral processes) are also at risk. Women with a high concentration of estrogen in their bodies are also at risk.
Varicose veins in the pelvic organs have pronounced symptoms, the main ones being:
- pain in the lower abdomen, radiating to the lumbosacral region (pain can be of varying degrees of intensity depending on the state of the body);
- pronounced and acutely experienced premenstrual syndrome;
- increased sensitivity of the perineum and vagina;
- abundant secretion from the genital tract;
- menstrual irregularities;
- in some cases there is a violation of urination;
- a feeling of heaviness in the pelvis with a prolonged stay in a static position.
In different cases, all symptoms and some of them can be observed, and they can also be expressed in varying degrees.
Classification by degree of disease
There are three degrees of this disease, whose measurement is the width of the damaged veins in diameter and the location of the main disorders, venous ectasia:
- 1st degree- the diameter of the vein is about 5 mm, which refers to any venous plexus of the small pelvis, the course of the vessel resembles a corkscrew;
- 2nd degree- veins reach 6 to 10 mm in diameter with total BP type, loose ovarian plexus ectasia;
- 3rd grade- Vein diameter greater than 10 mm with total type of RV, or main type of parametric location.
The above classification was proposed by scientists. Depending on the degree of development of the pathological process, one or another treatment method is selected - from lifestyle changes to surgical interventions.
In the first and second degrees, complete recovery is only possible with the help of so-called conservative treatment (use of venotonics, dietary changes, therapeutic exercises, use of anti-inflammatory drugs).
In the third degree, it is often impossible to do without surgical treatment methods, such as ligation and embolization of large veins, venectomy.
Methods for diagnosing the disease
It is difficult to determine the BP of the pelvic veins just by analyzing the patients' complaints, because the symptoms are similar to many gynecological diseases. Thus, the following methods are used to more accurately diagnose this disease (comprehensively performed):
The photo shows the appearance of pelvic varices during diagnostic tests.
These methods are used to ensure that other diseases are excluded, and a well-established diagnosis avoids the risk of incorrect treatment based on an inaccurate diagnosis.
When taking measures to combat this disease, it should be remembered that the presence of varicose veins in Organs pelvic organs can be a sign of predisposition to varicose processes and, consequently, adjust their lifestyle and way of life.
However, given the location of this particular type of VR, it must be emphasized that the surgical method is best used as a last resort.
Main objectives and general framework of treatment
Given the peculiarities of this disease, the tasks of all treatment methods for small pelvic varicose veins are as follows:
According to these tasks, several actions were developed to treat this disease: special diets, therapeutic exercises, special preparations, use of compression underwear (with specific design of socks and tights). In general, drug treatment combines the use of PA ointments from the veins and venotonic drugs.
The other treatment methods are described in more detail below.
Conservative treatment for small pelvic varicose veins provides for the gradual elimination of disease symptoms, making adjustments to daily life - establishing a balance between activity and rest, taking into account biorhythms, adequate nutrition, the use of a special type physical activity and control of the time the patient spends in an upright position.
In addition, treatment with phleboprotectants and substances containing gestagen is recommended. Recently, treatment with leeches (hirudotherapy), which are placed in the coccyx area, has become very popular.
Changing your diet means eliminating foods high in saturated fat and alcoholic beverages. Excessive weight in the diet should be favorable to foods rich in fiber (vegetables, fruits, cereals), healthy fats (vegetable oils).
The diet with PA of the veins completely excludes the use of spicy and very salty foods. Quitting the use of nicotine is also highly desirable.
Gymnastics, recommended exercises
Gymnastics is considered one of the most effective means of treating and preventing pelvic varicose veins. Daily exercise will help improve blood circulation, flexibility and plasticity.
Mainly from gymnastic exercises, a complex performed lying down is recommended.
It includes well-known exercises like "birch", "bike", and "scissors", in which the legs are actively developed but the lower back is not overloaded.
These exercises provide a flush of blood, which leads to the elimination of stagnant processes.
Surgical intervention is an extreme measure that is used when the disease is very advanced and there is a predisposition to VR of the veins. Surgical intervention is selected depending on the location of the main violations and provides for the following procedures:
- ligature of the ovarian vein;
- genital vein ligation (often in combination with perineal miniphlebectomy);
- Troyanov-Trendelenburg operation (crossectomy) - in case of injury to the veins of the lower extremities.
In case of need for surgical intervention, the selection of appropriate actions is very individualized, as everything depends on the location of the lesion.
The best preventive measures for VR of the small pelvis may be:
- healthy eating and after recovery;
- reasonable distribution of loads, normalization of working conditions;
- measured daily routine, minimizing stress (an important factor affecting hormone levels);
- moderate sexual activity (mild methods of contraception);
- prophylactic ingestion of venotonics over a course of 2-4 months.
The attentive attitude to your body is at the same time the key point, as a process of stagnation in the veins can reappear when you return to old habits, hence the reasons for the onset of the disease.
Criteria for Effectiveness of ERCT Treatment
Criteria for effective treatment of this disease include:
- elimination of RV symptoms from the pelvic veins;
- according to surveys - indicators that indicate improvement in venous drainage;
- prolonged remission of the disease;
- improved lifestyle as a result of conservative treatments;
- improving the appearance of the skin over the sites of damage;
- normalization of hormonal processes.
Effective treatment of pelvic varices has a positive effect on the physiological and psycho-emotional state of the patient.
Among the complications of varicose veins in the small pelvis, there may be:
- dysfunctional uterine bleeding;
- infectious diseases of the uterus, its adnexa;
- inflammatory processes of variable severity;
- bladder diseases;
- pelvic vein thrombosis (severe and rare complication - seen in 2-3 percent of all cases of the disease);
- gynecological diseases resulting from the inflammatory process;
- the pain experienced during sexual intercourse in the presence of this disease can lead to vaginismus and subsequent aversion to intimate life.
On average, women aged 25 to 45 seek a specialist with similar symptoms and manifestations. During menopause, varicose veins in the small pelvis are more difficult and complications are more likely.
Thus, the disease, being a consequence of the modern person's wrong way of life, significantly affects its quality. Timely and appropriate treatment can delay development or completely cure the disease.
Therefore, it is important to pay attention to the symptoms of this disease over time and consult a doctor.