Varicose veins is a fairly common disease, especially among women, which disrupted veins of the lower extremities. This is due to the fact that suffer from venous valves is a kind of dampers that regulate the reverse flow of blood from the legs. Normally, the valves should open and close depending on the flow of blood.
With varicose veins they almost never close, which develops the stagnation of blood in the veins of the lower extremities. Naturally, a large number of accumulated blood in the veins leads to a stretching of their walls, loss of firmness, and sometimes even damage. Accordingly, the progression of the process on the skin occur characteristic manifestations.
First, it's just spider veins, veins, then there are cusps of stretched veins blue and purple color, swollen feet, begin to peel off the skin, feels pain in the lower extremities. It is therefore very important to detect the disease at an early stage and time to begin treatment.
The reasons for the development of the disease
Varicose veins can develop under the influence of many factors on the outside. Of course, it all depends on the person's lifestyle. However, there are a number of predisposing risk factors that increase the likelihood of varicose veins.
These factors include genetic predisposition, hormonal balance, diseases of the nervous system, sedentary lifestyle, physical stress, flat feet, wearing shoes with high heels.
Genetic predisposition – unfortunately, spruce close relatives suffered from this disease, it is likely that it will be passed to You, so this is often due to a hereditary weakness of the connective tissue, or the defect venous valves. In this case, it is necessary to remember about prevention of varicose veins.
Hormonal imbalance – the constant fluctuations in hormone levels inherent in most women, and therefore, statistically, they are more prone to varicose veins. Such fluctuations are observed throughout the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy and at menopause. Also affects hormonal drugs (e.g. contraceptive). Female hormones can significantly affect the elasticity of the vessel walls.
Diseases of the nervous system, frequent stress, depression – it is known that the nervous system is responsible for the regulation of venous tone. Therefore, any pathology associated with it, can affect the condition of the veins;
Inflammatory processes in the pelvis – they are more concerned about the female sex. They can significantly disrupt hormone levels.
Sedentary lifestyle – because of long sitting at the computer, for example, the leg veins are clamped outflow of blood from them is disturbed. Due to the stagnation of blood in the vascular wall stretch and become thinner. Nowadays, even "computer varicose veins", so often it began to meet.
Physical stress – excessive physical activity also does not impact anything good for blood vessels. Weight lifting, constant walking, increase the load on the legs and, consequently, on the veins.
Flat feet – one way or another, is a deformity of the foot, and it also has a certain effect on the blood vessels of the lower extremities.
The Constitution of fat people, and especially with high growth very likely in the future varicose veins.
Wearing of high heels – again, it is dangerous for women, because when walking on high and not very comfortable heels, the load on the lower limbs enormously increased.
Clinical manifestations of varicose veins
Symptoms appear gradually, but steadily progressing, especially in the absence of proper treatment. It all starts with the appearance on the feet of small vascular meshes and sprockets. They do not cause much discomfort, but with these forms it is necessary to seek the advice of a doctor.
Further troubling swelling in the legs, which appear after a long walk and often in the evening. In the morning they are themselves. This is the first signal that is a function of deep veins, which carry the return blood to the heart is impaired.
Over time, patients begin to complain of leg cramping, numbness, particularly at night and in the morning. If these stages the treatment was not started, will continue to receive venous nodules on the skin, the veins will appear bluish or even more dark red color, they will be painful on palpation. The skin on the lower extremities will start to change gradually. It will become firm to the touch, dry, starts to peel off and darken. When walking will disturb severe pain in the muscles.
And in places of occurrence of venous nodes will be felt itchy. You may also experience involuntary contractions of calf muscles at night.
Diagnosis and complications of varicose veins
To diagnose the disease it is necessary as early as possible. But it all depends on when the patient go to the hospital.
When the diagnosis is based on complaints, symptoms on legs way of life of the patient, his habits, body type, presence of varicose veins have parents, brothers, sisters.
To confirm the diagnosis, appoint additional instrumental methods of examination.
Such methods are:
- Ultrasonic vein mapping (ultrasound) – also known as Doppler ultrasound of lower limb veins. It allows to assess the structure of the veins, their throughput, speed and direction of blood flow, presence of thrombotic formations, vascular dilation, the presence of any tumors.
- Contrast venography or phlebography – it is produced by introducing into a vessel a contrast agent. Its distribution shows the patency of the veins, the condition of the walls, the presence of space-occupying lesions in the vascular lumens.
Ultrasound is considered more preferable, as it is a non-invasive method of research.
In the absence of adequate treatment varicose veins can lead to several complications.
- thrombophlebitis – inflammation of the dilated and deformed veins;
- bleeding due to rupture of steel thin vascular walls;
- the rheological properties of the blood, which leads to the formation of blood clots, this in turn may lead to pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction and stroke;
- excessive pigmentation of the skin.
Sores – they can appear from the slightest wound or damage skin because of the constantly disturbed blood flow. As a result, the ulcers very long time to heal, probably hurt and unpleasant smell.
All this significantly affects the quality of life of patients and can even make them disabled.
The main methods of treatment of varicose veins
Unfortunately, varicosity is a chronic disease and there is no method to cure it completely. However, medicine has found the means to at least prevent progression of the disease.
Treatment depends on the stage of varicose veins. If it's just the initial symptoms, then you can do without surgery, that is only conservative methods.
Medications – these include tools that increase the tone of veins, anticoagulant drugs to prevent blood clots, NSAIDs (painkillers), angio protectors, as well as various creams, ointments and gels for the skin of the feet.
Compression methods – they involve the use of compression stockings, applying bandages elastic bandages to maintain the tone.
Pneumatic massage is a special massage that is performed using a pneumatic massager. This is very effective as it improves blood circulation, nutrition of tissues, increases vascular tone.
Sclerotherapy – this is an extreme method. It is carried out without operating procedures. To sclerosing of the vessel in its injectable administered a special substance that stops the blood flow in the vessel, so that it will atrophy over time, not functioning and disappears. However, it may require several sessions of sclerotherapy to achieve the desired effect.
Intravascular laser coagulation – this is an invasive method of treatment. With the help of laser surgeons to coagulate the affected vein under local anesthesia.
Leeches is a bit antiquated, but still effective. It relates to folk medicine. After applying a leech bite through the skin and sucking secrete into the blood substances. It thins the blood and prevents clots forming.
Diet – the diet of patients suffering from varicose veins, should be a large number of vegetables and fruits in any form, seafood, legumes, nuts, lean meats and dairy products.
Among the nontraditional methods of treatment in preference of a compress of Apple cider vinegar, with soap and potatoes, soda solution and baths, the use of tincture of ginseng.
Foundation for the prevention of varicose veins
Many wonder, is it possible to cure varicose veins permanently? The answer is no. However, you can follow certain preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of the disease.
In particular, it is an active way of life, weight loss, constant exercises for the lower extremities, use of compression clothes.
If the disease has already appeared, it is necessary to avoid the use of hormonal contraceptive medications (they contain female hormones, which can exacerbate the disease).
In addition, you should avoid:
- The use of any shoes with heels as it increases the load on the legs.
- Increasing body mass and, especially, obesity.
- The presence of dietary fat, spicy, fried, smoked and salted.
- Weight lifting.
- Long lying in the hot tub.
- Steam baths and saunas.
- Alcohol abuse, Smoking.
- Self-medication without consulting a doctor.
In addition, those who have a long time to be in a sitting or standing position, it is worth considering that:
- during a long stay on his feet does not hurt to rise on socks and fall on heels, moves from foot to foot and vigorously stir with your fingers to disperse the accumulated blood;
- during prolonged work in the office in front of a computer you can occasionally put your feet on the table, so that the blood will better flow away from the legs;
- you can buy a special foot stand on which will be very convenient to do any exercises;
- it is useful to periodically raise and lower the fingers, it gives tone to the calf muscles and activates blood flow in the veins.
Every hour you should stand a few minutes to walk around and do a little exercises.