Varicose veins of the lower extremities (varicose veins) — dilation of superficial veins of the lower extremities, accompanied by failure of valves and blood flow disorders. The term "varicose" comes from the Latin. varix — "swelling".
The prevalence of varicose veins is unusually wide. According to different authors, in varying degrees of the severity of her symptoms have up to 89% of women and 66% of men from among the people of developed countries.
A trigger in the development of varicose veins is considered a malfunction of the venous valves with the occurrence of back flow (reflux) of blood.
Usually first affects the valves at maximum mechanical load. In this case, abnormal discharge of blood takes place through the mouth of the great and small saphenous veins, sometimes through a large vein. Excess blood volume that occurs in the superficial veins that gradually leads to hyperextension of venous wall. Increases total blood volume contained in the venous superficial vein of the lower extremities. This increased blood volume continues to train in the deep system through the veins and stretches them. As a result, in the perforating veins occur dilation and valvular insufficiency.
The leading symptom of varicose veins is dilatation of subcutaneous veins, from which the disease takes its name. Varicose veinsusually appear at a young age, in women during or after pregnancy. In the initial stages of the disease appear few and very non-specific symptoms. Patients concerned about the feeling of heaviness and fatigue in the legs, mild swelling, burning, and sometimes night cramps in the calf muscles. One of the common symptoms that appear early in the disease, there are temporary swelling and pain along the veins (often not extended). With varicose veins the legs it is noted a small swelling of the soft tissues, usually in the feet, ankles and lower legs. This whole syndrome is so different from patient to patient, which is practically the only good name we should recognize the "syndrome of heavy legs". It is not necessary that this syndrome predisposes to the subsequent of varicose transformation of veins. However, most patients with varicose veins of the lower extremities early in the disease noted any of these symptoms. All these symptoms are usually more pronounced in the evening after work or during prolonged standing, especially in hot weather.
The disease develops slowly over the years, and sometimes decades. Further to the above subjective symptoms include recurring the night and disappearing by morning swelling. First, swelling of the ankles and back of the foot, and then spread into the lower leg. With the appearance of edema should talk about develop chronic venous insufficiency. The color of the skin becomes bluish tint. If patients at this stage do not receive necessary treatment, a certain part thereof is caused by hyperpigmentation of the skin of the shins. In more advanced cases, there trophic ulcers.
Prevention of varicose veins
Any disease is easier to prevent than to cure. A number of simple tips aimed at preventing the development of varicose veins.
Avoid stagnation of blood in the legs
- Prolonged sitting or standing, do everything you can to change the pose, if possible move more.
- Don't wear too tight jeans, tight belts and corsets, stockings and socks with tight elastic bands;
- It is not desirable shoes, tight lower leg (the calf).
Prolonged exposure to elevated temperature environment can lead to varicose veins, so unwanted
- Hot tubs, saunas, Turkish baths;
- Prolonged exposure to the sun;
- The application of hot wax as the epilator.
To avoid possible disease will help you:
- Control of overweight;
- Do not raise heavy weights;
- With care taken hormonal contraceptives (contraceptives).
To improve the condition of feet it is advisable
- Keep your feet in the raised position during sleep and rest;
- To take a contrast shower;
- Wear with loads of medical tights (men — socks);
- Wear comfortable shoes with a heel height of no more than 3 to 4 cm;
- Perform special exercises for the legs.
If you are forced to sit for a long time:
- Stand up and move around at a fast pace;
- Often change the position of the feet.
Daily sling leg taut, contrast shower, alternating warm and cool water. This is particularly necessary in the hot season.
Avoid sports that are associated with short-term load on the legs:
- Tennis, squash, high jumping, aerobics, weightlifting, football, skiing, snowboarding.
- The easiest and most accessible way — walking, Jogging.
- The best option is swimming;
Compression stockings — one of the best preventive medicines in case of hereditary tendency to varicose veins. Doctors recommend compression stockings during long flights, for sports training, giving a greater load on the press.
For all forms of the disease should go to the doctor-phlebologist.